Download 21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United by National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, PDF

By National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Technology, and Economic Policy Board on Science, Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy: Best Practice for the 21st Century, Charles Wessner, Kenneth Flamm, Masayuki Kondo, Sadao Nagaoka

Spotting ability to innovate and commercialize new high-technology items is more and more a key for the industrial development within the atmosphere of tighter environmental and source constraints, governments world wide have taken lively steps to reinforce their nationwide innovation structures. those steps underscore the idea of those governments that the emerging expenditures and dangers linked to new most likely high-payoff applied sciences, their spillover or externality-generating results and the becoming worldwide festival, require nationwide R&D courses to aid the strategies by means of new and latest high-technology enterprises inside their borders. The nationwide study Council's Board on technological know-how, know-how, and monetary coverage (STEP) has launched into a examine of chosen international innovation courses compared to significant U.S. courses. The "21st Century Innovation platforms for the us and Japan: classes from a Decade of switch" symposium reviewed govt courses and tasks to aid the improvement of small- and medium-sized companies, government-university- collaboration and consortia, and the influence of the highbrow estate regime on innovation. This booklet brings jointly the papers provided on the convention and gives a historic context of the problems mentioned on the symposium.

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Extra resources for 21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change: Report of a Symposium

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It was one source of delays in patent examination in Japan in the early 1990s. Even though it provided a mechanism for a third party to add valuable information on prior art, it also opened the door for a competitor to file opposition without substantial merit. The post-grant opposition system was integrated into invalidation trials after 2004, in order to provide a definitive resolution of conflicts between a patent applicant and opponents. 16 21ST CENTURY INNOVATION SYSTEMS FOR JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES The level of IPRs protection in Japan is now widely recognized to be very high.

In terms of university-industry linkages, joint research centers have been established at universities since fiscal 1987 as the footholds for the promotion of industry-academia cooperation. These centers provides physical places to conduct collaborative research projects between university and private firms, as well as an inside-university focal point of interaction with industry representatives. There were 62 centers as of the end of October 2003. Finally, the spin-offs from university are increasing.

After the collapse of the so-called bubble economy in 1992, the Japanese economy went into a long and severe recession, which lasted more than a decade. ”1 The seemingly obvious cause of this prolonged stagnation was the excess capacity built up during the boom years of 1980s and the resulting sharp decline of investments in plants and equipments in the 1990s,2 which led to a steep decline in asset prices and to loan defaults. However, the “real side of the economy” may also be responsible. 3 Other researchers confirmed that 1See Hayashi and Prescott (2002).

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