By Lienhard J.H.IV, Lienhard J.H.V.
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20] J. G. Collier and J. R. Thome. Convective Boiling and Condensation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 3rd edition, 1994. 21] Y. Y. Hsu and R. W. Graham. Transport Processes in Boiling and Two-Phase Systems Including Near-Critical Systems. American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL, 1986. 22] W. M. Kays and A. L. London. Compact Heat Exchangers. McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 3rd edition, 1984. 23] G. F. Hewitt, editor. Heat Exchanger Design Handbook 1998. Begell House, New York, 1998. 24] R.
We call such processes of carrying heat away by a moving ﬂuid convection. 15) where T∞ is the temperature of the oncoming ﬂuid. This statement suggests that energy is ﬂowing from the body. 3 is constantly replenished, the body temperature need not change. Then with the help of eqn. 3) we get, from eqn. 17) This is the steady-state form of Newton’s law of cooling, as it is usually quoted, although Newton never wrote such an expression. The constant h is the ﬁlm coeﬃcient or heat transfer coeﬃcient.
To do this, note that the heat transfer, Q, must be the same at every cross section. Write Fourier’s law locally, and integrate it from top to bottom to get a relation between this unknown Q and the known end temperatures. 11 A hot water heater contains 100 kg of water at 75◦ C in a 20◦ C room. 3 m2 . Select an insulating material, and specify its thickness, to keep the water from cooling more than 3◦ C/h. (Notice that this problem will be greatly simpliﬁed if the temperature drop in the steel casing and the temperature drop in the convective boundary layers are negligible.