By Simin Karimi
This learn addresses the issues scrambling langauges supply for the present syntactic theories by way of examining the interplay of semantic and discourse sensible elements with syntactic houses of notice order during this form of languages, and via discussing the consequences of this interplay for common Grammar. 3 interrelated pursuits are conscientiously during this paintings. the 1st is to research the syntactic constitution of Persian, a language which indicates loose be aware order. With this research, the writer has accounted for the relative order of categorised expressions, the incentive for his or her attainable rearrangements, and the grammatical result of these reorderings. during this recognize, a vast diversity of significant syntactic phenomena, together with item shift, Case, prolonged Projection precept (EPP), binding, and scope interpretation of quantifiers, interrogative words, adverbial words, and damaging parts are tested. This monograph is the 1st significant theoretical paintings ever released on Persian, and for this reason fills the prevailing hole by means of offering perception into the syntactic constitution of this language. the second one aim is to attach those insights to related linguistic homes in languages within which scrambling happens (e.g. German, Dutch, Hindi, Russian, jap, and Korean), and to supply a deeper knowing of this team of genetically various, yet typologically similar languages. the ultimate and primary aim is to situate the result of this paintings in the framework of the Minimalist application (MP). The investigations during this examine point out that scrambling isn't an non-compulsory rule, and that convinced ideas of MP, corresponding to the minimum hyperlink situation, are just likely violated in those languages. moreover, it truly is proven that cautious research of scrambling with appreciate to binding and scope kin, and a reanalysis of the houses of A and A' events, solid a few doubts at the relevance of a typology of stream in ordinary language.
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Extra resources for A Minimalist Approach to Scrambling: Evidence from Persian
Diruz be madrese raft-am [bâ Arezu]i [CP chonke ti gharâr dâsht-am] c. *[bâ Arezu]i diruz be madrese raft-am [CP chonke ti gharâr dâsht-am] Note that (23b&c) are grammatical if the PP bâ Arezu ‘with Arezu’ is interpreted as part of the matrix clause: I went with Arezu to school yesterday, because I had an appointment. Again, the ungrammaticality of these examples remains unexplained given a base-generation approach. We saw that FQ is in general allowed in Persian, as in (12), repeated below in (24).
However, she has to consider two types of D since demonstratives appear in a DP initial position. Persian does not make gender distinctions, not even in its pronominal system. We use ‘she’ and ‘her’ in the English translations wherever the referent is arbitrary. For a more elaborated analysis of sentential arguments of verbs see Karimi (2001). This is the analysis advanced by Koster (1987) for German and Dutch. Also Zwart (1997) argues that sentential arguments of verbs are base-generated in the post-verbal position in Dutch, a language that is verb final underlyingly.
10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 31 Ez = Ezafe particle. Ezafe construction is a DP consisting of the head (an element with the feature [+N] such as N or A), its modifier(s), an optional possessor DP, and the Ezafe particle e that is structurally utilized as a link between the head and its modifier. For different analyses of Ezafe Constructions see Samiian (1983, 1994), Karimi and Brame (1986), and Ghomeshi (1996, 1997a) Studies by traditional grammarians have considered Modern Persian a verb final language (Foroughi (1944), Boyle 1966; Khanlari 1976; Vazinpour 1977; Lazard 1992).