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By American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Policy and Global Affairs, Security, and Cooperation Development, Committee on Assessing Fundamental Attitudes of

An analogous applied sciences that gas medical advances additionally pose capability risks--that the data, instruments, and methods won via valid biotechnology learn should be misused to create organic guns or for bioterrorism. this is referred to as the twin use hassle of the lifestyles sciences. but even examine with the best strength for misuse might provide major advantages. identifying how one can constrain the chance with no harming crucial medical learn is necessary for nationwide defense in addition to prosperity and health. This e-book discusses a 2007 survey of yank organization for the development of technological know-how (AAAS) participants within the existence sciences approximately their wisdom of twin use concerns and attitudes approximately their obligations to aid mitigate the dangers of misuse in their study. total, the implications recommend that there is substantial aid for techniques to oversight that depend upon measures which are constructed and applied by way of the medical neighborhood itself. The responses additionally recommend that there's a have to make clear the scope of study actions of shock and to supply advice approximately what activities scientists can take to minimize the danger that their learn should be misused by way of people with malicious motive.

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Additional info for A Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: A Collaborative Effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Sample text

Under the scientific self-governance approach, the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center supports responsible stewardship and self-governance by life scientists without mandated governmental restrictions (Kwik et al. 2003). The basic tenets of this perspective are that scientists should be involved in determining which experiments are dangerous and made aware of the potential misuse of biotechnology; security measures should be thoughtfully developed and integrated into the existing research culture; biosecurity awareness and measures should begin with scientists rather than be prescribed by governments; periodic evaluation and improvement of biosecurity measures should occur; and through collaborations, the norms and ethical standards to prevent misuse of biotechnology should be established and propagated globally.

Even if we do not like it, we must nonetheless follow it (while working to change it) or risk . . being prosecuted for being an outlaw. . Americans can go to jail for violating the law, but not for violating codes of ethics. We aspire to uphold ethics—we deserve praise (at least some) for behaving ‘ethically’; whereas we deserve none for simply following the law, some of which is in fact made up of ‘legal technicalities’” (Annas 2006). 31 The Memorandum stated that “This does not preclude research into those offensive aspects of bacteriological/biological agents necessary to determine what defensive measures are required” (White House 1969:3).

35 In Germany, the Act on the Reform of the Communicable Diseases Law (Communicable Diseases Law Reform Act) contains provisions that limit the distribution of pathogens to authorized individuals. 36 Policies implemented in the United States after September 11 have significantly increased the level of scrutiny and the time involved in the 34 Clinical laboratories were granted a special exemption to permit them to legally isolate and identify (and thereby possess) select agents cultured from patients as part of the medical diagnostic process, even if they were not registered to possess select agents.

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