By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain
Many nations worldwide block or filter out web content material, denying entry to information—often approximately politics, but in addition with regards to sexuality, tradition, or religion—that they deem too delicate for traditional electorate. entry Denied records and analyzes net filtering practices in over 3 dozen international locations, delivering the 1st carefully carried out examine of this accelerating development. web filtering happens in no less than 40 states all over the world together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. comparable web content material regulate mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the USA, and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of world web filtering undertaken via the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman middle for net and Society at Harvard legislation college, the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto, the Oxford web Institute at Oxford college, and the collage of Cambridge) and hoping on paintings through neighborhood specialists and an intensive community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, felony, social, and cultural contexts of net filtering in those states from quite a few views. Chapters talk about the mechanisms and politics of web filtering, the strengths and boundaries of the know-how that powers it, the relevance of foreign legislations, moral concerns for companies that offer states with the instruments for blocking off and filtering, and the consequences of web filtering for activist groups that more and more depend upon net applied sciences for speaking their missions. stories on net content material legislation in 40 varied international locations persist with, with each one nation profile outlining the kinds of content material blocked by means of class and documenting key findings. Contributors : Ross Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva, Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, and Jonathan Zittrain
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Extra resources for Access Denied. Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering [censorship]
Very few countries go this far. A small group of countries, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, and United Arab Emirates, and some ISPs in Iran, allow Internet users to write to authorities to register a complaint that a given Web site has been blocked erroneously. Centralized filtering regimes require all Internet traffic to pass through the same filters. This results in a consistent view of the Internet for users within the country; all users experience the same degree of filtering. This is most commonly implemented at the international gateway.
The reverse is also possible. For example, if the IP address of a Web site is blocked, the Web site may change its hosting arrangement in order to receive a new IP address, leaving it unblocked until the new IP address is discovered and blocked. Summary Measures of Internet Filtering To summarize the results of our work, we have assigned a score to each of the countries we studied. This score is designed to reflect the degree of filtering in each of the four major thematic areas: 1) the filtering of political content, 2) social content, 3) conflict- and securityrelated content, and 4) Internet tools and applications.
Some states partially centralize the filtering operation at private Internet exchange points (IXPs)—topological crossroads for network traffic—or through explicit state-run clearing points established to serve as gatekeepers for Internet traffic. Some states implement filter´s or in pubing at public Internet access points, such as the computers found within cybercafe lic libraries and schools, as in the United States. Such filtering can take the form of software used in many American libraries and schools for filtering purposes, or normative filtering— government-encouraged social pressure by shop proprietors, librarians, and others as citizens surf the Internet in common public places.