By Robert I. Frost
The Swedish invasion of 1655, recognized to Poles ever because because the 'Swedish deluge', provoked the political and army cave in of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the second-largest country in Europe. Robert Frost examines the explanations for Poland's fall and the behavior of the conflict by means of the Polish executive, and addresses the the most important query of why, regardless of frequent reputation of the shortcomings of the political procedure, next makes an attempt at reform failed. struggle has lengthy been obvious as the most important to the improvement of more suitable structures of presidency in Europe throughout the 17th century, yet reports frequently pay attention to states which spoke back effectively to the demanding situations. a lot could be discovered from those who failed, and the paucity of English-language fabric in this very important clash implies that After the Deluge will attract a extensive viewers between historians of Poland, Germany, Scandinavia, Russia, and early glossy Europe generally.
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Extra info for After the Deluge: Poland-Lithuania and the Second Northern War, 1655-1660
15 Coxe castigated the total confusion he saw in the administration of public affairs and concluded that Polish liberty was 'the source of Polish wretchedness; and Poland appears to me ... 16 Until the mid-seventeenth century, however, there had been little to indicate that this would prove to be the case: the Commonwealth appeared to be eminently capable not just of defending itself but of expanding. Poland-Lithuania was the most dynamic state in northern and eastern Europe between 1450 and 1617, as it benefited most from the collapse of the great crusading orders along the Baltic coastline in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, winning control of Danzig and Royal (West) Prussia in 1466, suzerainty over Ducal (East) Prussia in 1525 and control of Livonia in 1561.
It was not just Protestants who were affected. The Union of Lublin, which transferred the Ukraine to Polish control, opened it up to the forces of the CounterReformation. Orthodox nobles were also affected by the growing monopoly on royal patronage enjoyed by Catholics, and a number of leading Orthodox families turned Catholic. The situation was further complicated by one of the great triumphs of the Counter-Reformation, when the establishment of the Greek Catholic or Uniate Church at the Union of Brest in 1596 sought to end the schism between Orthodox and Catholic: the Commonwealth's Orthodox hierarchy agreed to accept the authority of the Pope in return for being allowed to follow the Orthodox rite.
22 The victory of this point of view among the nobility sounded the deathknell for the diet's chances of developing into an effective parliamentary body. During the 1660s, recourse to the veto became common: it had only been used twice between 1652 and 1662; between 1664 and 1668 it was used on five occasions. 19 20 21 22 Coxe, Travels^. 121. Anderson, Lineages p. 286; cf. A. I. Kouri and T. ), Politics and Society in Reformation Europe. Essays for Sir Geoffrey Elton on his Sixty-Fifth Birthday (London, 1987) p.