Download Alif Baa: Introduction to Arabic Letters and Sounds. by Mahmoud Al-Batal, Kristen Brustad, Abbas Al-Tonsi PDF

By Mahmoud Al-Batal, Kristen Brustad, Abbas Al-Tonsi

With a suite of 3 audio CDs, this article is meant for someone drawn to studying sleek Arabic as a dwelling language. the 1st a part of the Al-Kitaab language software, it embodies major premises: that the scholar can and may learn how to realize and bring the sounds of Arabic thoroughly from the very starting, and that the coed could be brought to the whole variety of the Arabic language and cultural continuum - colloquial, glossy ordinary, and classical. In educating the sounds and letters of Arabic, this article offers a number of workouts geared toward constructing all abilities: analyzing, listening, writing, conversing, and cultural realizing. so as to train Arabic as utilized by Arabs, together with social elements of Arab tradition, this publication and its accompanying CDs introduce the scholar to the colloquial dialect of Cairo, the main broadly spoken and understood within the Arabic-speaking international. "Alif Baa" introduces approximately one hundred fifty uncomplicated vocabulary phrases, together with social greetings and politeness formulae, such a lot of that are universal to plain Arabic and a number of dialects. The booklet and CDs concentrate on analyzing talents, aural reputation, and oral creation via broad drills and accompanying video clips. together with actual fabrics from newspapers and magazines and skits filmed in Egypt, in addition to an English-Arabic word list, "Alif Baa" lays the basis for the remainder of the Al-Kitaab language software.

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Extra info for Alif Baa: Introduction to Arabic Letters and Sounds. Al-Kitaab fii ta allum al -Arabiyya - a textbook for Arabic

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147) is obtained , the g; are replaced not by the average value, but with an eigenvalue, starting from where the series begins. This explains why the wave functions for excited states obtained without regard for the conditions given by Eq. 148) and used in many works yield results that are physically reliable. The variation principle can even be used to find the wave function of a free electron having kinetic energy e, orbital angular momentum L, and moving in the field of an atom . 152) (only the negative oneelectron energy _l/zenl ,nl changes by the positive energy e) n The expressions for Vefr) and Kefr) correspond to the replacement n -+ e and the substitution N = 1 in Eqs.

148) by way of incorporating the respective Lagrangian multipliers into the Hartree - Fock 40 Chapter 1 equations, but this substantially complicates the calculations and leads to an increase in the error [63]. For the case of highly excited states with internal vacancies, which have a large number of lower states with the same symmetry, this method is unusable in practice . The orthogonality condition can also be satisfied when a special function that is nonlinear in H is used [64], but this involves significant labor in the calculations .

207) is found for the relativistic operator 0 ' , An expression was obtained in [74] for the effective Breit interaction operator which contains two-electron operators of the ([at x Fundamentals of Atomic Theory a](klk2k )· [a t X a](kl 'k2 'k» 51 type (the orbital and spin ranks are combined into a common rank), 6j- and 9j-symbols, and relativistic radial integrals. , f j(2j+ I), g(j, } )=1 if n=n', /=/', l (2j+ 1)(2j'+ I) otherwise. 211) where K) and K h denote the lowest and highest subconfigurations, and c)l.

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