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By J. Donald Hughes

This paintings offers a concise background, from historical to fashionable occasions, of the interactions among human societies and the opposite kinds of lifestyles that inhabit our planet. It investigates the ways that environmental alterations, usually the results of human activities, have triggered old has a tendency in human societies.

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Extra info for An Environmental History of the World: Humankind's Changing Role in the Community of Life (Routledge Studies in Physical Geography and Environment)

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They had a visible effect on their environments. The kangaroos in aboriginal Australia, for example, were doubtless swifter and more wary animals because skilled hunters killed the slower and less alert ones. 36 Gatherers removed some species, but also may have scattered the seeds of desirable plants to encourage their growth. ”37 Some of the largest animals became extinct within the context both of hunting and a changing climate. These extinctions are part of the experience that led to the establishment of the primal hunters’ code.

Photograph taken in 1961. boxes. The priests anointed the dancers with corn meal. Most impressive were the masks of the kachinas, crowned with transverse crests or tablas that were decorated with fertility symbols—the clouds that bring the rain necessary to vegetative growth in this high, arid region—and topped by plant shoots standing upright. The iconography of the kachinas made two major purposes of the ceremony quite clear: to assure the productiveness of the fields and to call for rain. The translation of a kachina song expresses this: The green prayer-stick brings the water, For the earth and its vegetation are combined in it.

A living creature allows for changes that come from inner states and outer forces, adapting to sustain its life. The idea that the Earth is a living organism is very ancient. Such was the intuitive understanding of the earliest people whose thought can be fathomed, the tribal hunters and farmers. They regarded Earth as a mother, and worshipped her as a goddess. 2 In the twentieth century, the atmospheric chemist James Lovelock enunciated a theory that all life on Earth acts together like a great living organism to influence temperature, atmospheric composition, and other physical factors so as to maintain optimum conditions for itself.

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