By Pui-In Mak, Ben U Seng Pan, Rui Paulo Martins
With the prior few decade efforts on lithography and integrated-circuit (IC) applied sciences, very reasonably cheap microsystems were effectively built for lots of diverse purposes. the craze in instant communications is towards making a networkubiquitous period within the years yet to come. Many extraordinary possibilities and demanding situations, similar to layout for multi-standardability and low-voltage (LV) compliance, are quickly turning into the mainstream instructions in wireless-IC learn and improvement, provided that the previous can supply the simplest connectivity between diverse networks, whereas the latter can facilitate the expertise migration into the sub-1-V nanoscale regimes for additional rate and gear relief.
Analog-Baseband Architecturees and Circuits presents architectural and circuit concepts for instant transceivers to accomplish multistandard and low-voltage compliance. the 1st a part of the booklet studies the actual layer necessities of recent instant communique criteria, offers the basic tradeoffs concerned with transceiver structure choice, and offers case stories of the state of the art multistandard transceivers, the place the major concepts strengthened are highlighted and mentioned. A statistical precis (with a hundred+ references mentioned) of so much used transmitter and receiver architectures for contemporary verbal exchange criteria is supplied. all of the references are citied from the best boards, i.e., ISSCC, CICC, VLSI and ESSCIRC, from 1997 to 2005.
The moment half specializes in the architectural layout of multistandard transceivers. A coarse-RF fine-IF (two-step) channelselection process is disclosed. It, throughout the reconfiguration of receiver and transmitter analog basebands, allows not just a rest of the RF frequency synthesizer’s and native oscillator’s layout standards, but in addition a good multistandard compliance via synthesizing the low-IF and zero-IF within the receiver; and the direct-up and two-step-up within the transmitter. the primary is tested in few layout examples. certainly one of them is a system-in-a-package (SiP) receiver analog baseband for IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLAN. It not just has the two-step channel choice embedded, but in addition includes a flexible-IF topology, a special 3D-stack floorplan, and a selected layout method for prime testability and routability.
The 3rd half offers with the circuit layout. as well as the methodical description of many LV circuit recommendations, three tailormade LV-robust useful blocks are provided. They comprise: 1) a double-quadrature-downconversion clear out (DQDF) – it realizes at the same time clock-rate-defined IF reception, I/Q demodulation, IF channel choice and baseband filtering. 2) A switched-current-resistor (SCR) programmable-gain amplifier (PGA) – it bargains a transient-free constant-bandwidth achieve adjustment. three) An inside-OpAmp dc-offset canceler – it saves the silicon sector required for knowing a wide time consistent on chip whereas maximizing its highpass-pole switchability for speedy dc-offset transient.
The final half provides experimental result of the three tailored construction blocks and a fully-integrated analog-baseband IC fabricated in a standard-VTH CMOS strategy. formerly untold on-/off-chip co-setup for either full-chip and construction blocks measurements are defined. not just the development blocks have effectively prolonged the state of the art boundary when it comes to sign bandwidth and provide voltage, the analog-baseband IC has been to date the lowest-voltage-reported answer for IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLAN receivers.
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Extra info for Analog-Baseband Architectures And Circuits For Multistandard And Lowvoltage Wireless Transceivers
11a/b/g WLANs,” in Proc. IEEE Custom Integrated-Circuit Conference (CICC), pp. 409– 412, Oct. 2004. 98] K. 11a/b/g Wireless LAN,” in Proc. European SolidState Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), pp. 221–224, Sept. 2003. 99] T. Rühlicke, M. Zannoth and B. Klepser, “A Highly Integrated, Dual-Band, MultiMode Wireless LAN Transceiver,” in Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), pp. 229–232, Sept. 2003. 100]J. , “A Fully Integrated Multi-Band MIMO WLAN Transceiver RFIC,” IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI), Digest of Technical Papers, pp.
On the other hand, the dual-conversion architecture can cooperate with the low-IF and zero-IF ones in case of a large frequency difference in the given standards. Exploiting a common IF constitutes an 32 Analog-Baseband Architectures and Circuits efficient way to alleviate the frequency synthesis, filtering and channel selection. In circuit level, although dedicated LNAs/PAs optimized for each band are normally required for multiband communications, inductor sharing is still efficient to save chip area.
98] K. 11a/b/g Wireless LAN,” in Proc. European SolidState Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), pp. 221–224, Sept. 2003. 99] T. Rühlicke, M. Zannoth and B. Klepser, “A Highly Integrated, Dual-Band, MultiMode Wireless LAN Transceiver,” in Proc. European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), pp. 229–232, Sept. 2003. 100]J. , “A Fully Integrated Multi-Band MIMO WLAN Transceiver RFIC,” IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSI), Digest of Technical Papers, pp. 290–293, June 2005. 101]O. 11a/b/g Transceiver IC for Cellular and Bluetooth Co-Existence Applications,” in Proc.